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This page calculates the mean heat transfer coefficient for simultaneously developing velocity and temperature fields in a circular smooth tube assuming a square abrupt entry. The convection calculation automatically switches between laminar and turbulent convection correlations based on Reynolds number. The correlations used apply for both uniform heat flux and temperature in the turbulent regime. In the laminar regime a correlation based on constant temperature is assumed.

The calculation is based on a mean Nusselt.

The tube wall temperature (Tw) is calculated as:

Tw = Tb + q / (hm*A)

Where hm is the average heat transfer coefficient between the entry and distance L, A is the surface area of the tube, q is the heat load uniformly distributed on the tube surface and Tb is the fluid bulk temperature. hm is defined as:

hm = Num k / D

Where Num is the mean Nusselt Number, k the conductivity of the fluid and D the diameter of the tube. The Nusselt number is calculated as:

For Laminar Flow - Re < 2300
If (Re Pr / L / D)(1/3) ( µ/ µw )0.14 >= 2.0 ; flow is developing.
Num = 1.86 (Re Pr / (L/D) )(1/3) (µ / µw)0.14
valid for 0.48 < Pr < 16,700 and 0.0044 < (µ / µw)0.14 < 9.75
Else ; flow is fully developed
Num = 3.66 ; uniform temperature

For Turbulent Developing Flow - 2300 < Re < 5 x 106
Num = Nudev ( 1 + 2.4254 / ( L / D )0.676) ; valid for Pr = 0.7, i.e. air
where    Nudev = ( f / 8) ( Re - 1000 ) Pr / { 1 + 12.7( f / 8 )1/2 (  Pr2/3 - 1 ) }
valid for 0.5 < Pr < 2,000
and  f = ( 0.79ln Re - 1.64 ) -2 are the Nusselt and friction values for fully developed flow

Where Re is the Reynolds number and Pr is the Prandtl number are calculated using fluid properties as follows:

Re = fluid density x fluid velocity x diameter / dynamic viscosity
Pr = Specific heat x dynamic viscosity / thermal conductivity
µ = dynamic viscosity of the fluid
µw = dynamic viscosity evaluated at the temperature of the wall

In addition, you must define all fluid properties at the film temperature Tf defined as shown below except for µw which is evaluated at Tw:

Tf = (Tw + Tb) / 2

References

Gnielinski, V., Int. Chem. Eng., 16, 359, 1976

Incropera, De Witt., Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, eq.8.57, 8.63a & 8.63b, 1990.

Rohsenow, W. R., J. P. Hartnett and Y. I. Cho, Handbook of Heat Transfer, 3rd ed., McGraw Hill, 1998, p. 5.29.